SAE International recently published the J2880 - Recommended Green Racing Protocols. The aims of J2880 are to:
• Provide sanctioning bodies with recommendations to help them align competition rules with the objectives of sustainable transportation
• Support environmentally responsible and sustainable technology that is transferable to production vehicles
• Promote environmentally friendly operations of motorsports venues, competition events, and racing team facilities
• Assist sanctioning bodies in establishing a roadmap to increase green initiatives.
The U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. EPA, and SAE, along with partners and representatives from the motorsports industry, developed the protocols to be used by those automotive racing series who seek recognition as a Green Racing Series.
The elements of J2880 identify a range of technologies, fuels, and operational procedures that support development of a sustainable future for both motorsports and personal mobility, and organize them into a matrix of five Green Racing elements and four levels of commitment within each element. These elements are: propulsion systems, fuel/energy carriers, energy recovery, improved efficiency, and emission reduction. The levels of commitment are: Core, Enhanced, Elevated, and Pinnacle.
The University of California-Davis, and CATARC (China Automotive Technology and Research Center) will cooperate to speed commercialization of plug-in and fuel-cell electric cars in China and the U.S. under an agreement signed Sept. 6 in Tianjin, China. The five-year memorandum of understanding establishes the China–U.S. ZEV Policy Lab, a partnership between UC Davis and CATARC (the administrative body that oversees and regulates many activities of the auto industry in China). Primary UC Davis partners are the university's Institute of Transportation Studies and the UC Davis Policy Institute for Energy, Environment, and the Economy. The California Air Resources Board and the China National Development and Reform Commission have supported the agreement and will co-chair the new entity’s advisory board. Major international and Chinese automotive and energy companies will also be invited to participate. The intent behind the collaboration is to help expand the global market for zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) by providing intellectual support for design of ZEV policies and analysis of consumer markets, including demand for charging stations, different types of ZEV technologies, and effectiveness of incentives. The creation of the China–U.S. ZEV Policy Lab follows several recent measures announced by the Chinese government to fight the country’s hazardous smog and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In July, it mandated that electric cars make up at least 30% of government vehicle purchases by 2016. The Chinese government also recently announced new financial incentives for electric-car purchases.
Yunshi Wang, Director of the China Center for Energy and Transportation at UC Davis (left), and Zhixin Wu, Deputy Director of the China Automotive Technology and Research Center, sign a memorandum of for the partnership. The ceremony took place Sept. 6, 2014, in Tianjin, China. Behind them, from left, are Alberto Ayala, Deputy Executive Officer of the California Air Resources Board, and Gang Li, Department Chief of the Industry Coordination Bureau of the National Development and Reform Commission. (CATARC)
Days before Tesla on Sept. 4 announced it has selected Nevada as the state in which it will build a large "Gigafactory' battery plant, Lux Research opined that the savings in lithium-ion battery costs owing to high-volume efficiencies will not be as much as the automaker expects it to be. Lux predicts Tesla will sell fewer than half of the 500,000 it predicts for 2020. The Gigafactory will reduce the cost of the upcoming high-volume Model 3 by only $2800, Lux says, "not enough to sway the success of the planned lower-cost EV." Tesla had very little to say in a press release announcing the site selection decision. In an earlier release, the automaker said the Gigafactory will produce cells, modules, and packs for Tesla's electric vehicles and for the stationary storage market. Tesla projects Gigafactory output at 35 GW·h of cells and 50 GW·h of packs per year by 2020.
LG Innotek on Aug. 28 announced it will begin production in early 2015 of an electric motor for use in automotive dual-clutch transmissions (DCT) that does not use rare-earth metals—a world-first for this application, the company claims. The motor also is 4% lighter than comparable motors that use precious metals such as neodymium and dysprosium—long considered essential in the manufacture of e-motors, such as those used in the hydraulic pumps of some DCTs, due to their magnetic properties. But the metals are environmentally controversial and are subject to commodity price fluctuations. LG Innotek developed its technology over more than two years, and has registered 13 related Korean and foreign patent applications for it. The auto industry has been studying alternatives to rare-earth metals in various applications. LG will build its new rare-earth-free motors at a factory in Mexico.
Tesla Motors is learning that making trouble-free autos is no easy task. In this week's SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at the American electric car maker and recent reports of problems with its Model S luxury sedan.SAE Eye on Engineering can be viewed at http://youtu.be/kgbdTHxuegw. Access archived episodes of the SAE Eye on Engineering podcast at www.sae.org/magazines/podcasts.
Watch the video at http://youtu.be/kgbdTHxuegw.
As alternatives to silicon (Si), use of wide-bandgap materials (WBGs) such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) for power electronics in electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles can have a major impact on systems and overall vehicle costs, according to a Lux Research report. “Efficient power electronics is key to a smaller battery size, which in turn has a positive cascading impact on wiring, thermal management, packaging, and weight of electric vehicles,” said Pallavi Madakasira, Lux Research Analyst and the lead author of the report titled, “Silicon vs. WBG: Demystifying Prospects of GaN and SiC in the Electrified Vehicle Market (https://portal.luxresearchinc.com/research/report_excerpt/17422). A power savings of 20% for the Tesla Model S, for example, could result in cost savings of $6000 in battery cost, or 8% of the vehicle's cost. Lux says SiC could displace Si as early as 2020, and notes that the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors initiative is spending $69 million this year to define performance and cost targets for power electronics; the Japanese government funds a joint industry and university R&D program on power electronics that includes Toyota, Honda, and Nissan.
Lux Research says at 2% power savings, if battery costs fall below $250/kW·h, SiC diodes will be the only economic solution in EVs requiring a large battery, such as the Tesla Model S. However, for plug-in electric vehicles, the threshold power savings needs to be a higher 5%.
Panasonic will handle the cell-making activity at Tesla's coming battery manufacturing facility dubbed the Gigafactory, the two companies announced July 31. Panasonic already supplies cylindrical (18650 type) battery cells for the Tesla Model S from its factories in Japan. The automaker is in the process of selecting a site in the southwestern part of the U.S. for a large-scale battery factory to meet demand for future additional Tesla vehicle models and to supply the stationary-energy-storage market. Panasonic's cylindrical cell operation at the Gigafactory will take up half the space in the building, with the remainder to be used by Tesla and suppliers to assemble the newly developed cells into modules and full battery packs. Expected capacity at the Gigafactory is 35 GW·h of cells and 50 GW·h of packs per year by 2020; to meet that pack target, Tesla will import additional Panasonic cells from Japan.
Tesla and Panasonic earlier had agreed to co-develop a new battery cell technology. Shown is the Model S.
The Electric Power Research Institute has announced a collaboration with 8 automakers and 15 utilities to develop and demonstrate an open grid integration platform for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). General Motors and Honda are among the automakers involved. The goal is to develop a customer-friendly interface so PEV drivers can more easily participate in utility PEV programs, such as off-peak or nighttime charging rates, according to an EPRI release. In the first phase, EPRI and the participating companies will develop a standardized demand-response solution, which is a signal a utility sends to an energy management company to communicate the supply and demand needs to the grid. The company will then communicate with designated PEVs in the area to manage energy consumption to follow the grid’s needs, according to GM. The program could also help mitigate the impact of strain on the grid during peak periods and could help curb greenhouse gas emissions, according to the EPRI. Sumitomo Electric will develop the core platform technology on the first phase. The globally applicable software platform complies with standards set by major international organizations, including SAE International.
Honda is one of eight automakers collaborating with the EPRI to develop an open grid integration platform for PEVs. It already is participating in a V2G demonstration with the University of Delaware and NRG Energy.
The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office has issued a request for information (RFI) to the research community and relevant stakeholders, according to a release. The DOE is seeking feedback about fuel-cell technology validation, commercial acceleration, and potential deployment strategies for continuous fuel-cell rechargers (range-extenders) on board light-duty battery-electric vehicle fleets. Also requested is technical information and information on vehicle makes and models that are the most feasible for an aftermarket modification to extend vehicle range using a fuel-cell system. Light-duty all-electric vehicles with fuel-cell range-extenders for commercial fleet vehicles potentially have comparable or better performance than internal-combustion-engine propulsion systems for battery electric vehicles. Electric drivetrains might benefit from batteries for delivering power and fuel-cell systems for energy storage and peak power needs. For details, see the RFI announcement DE-FOE-0001145 or email questions to FuelCellCOBRA@ee.doe.gov with “question” in the subject line. Responses to the RFI must be submitted by 5 p.m. (EDT) Aug. 7, 2014.
The Franche-Comté region of France and the French postal service, La Poste, are testing hydrogen-based range-extender kits from Symbio FCell in Renault Kangoo Z.E electric vehicles used by La Poste. The vehicles are equipped with hydrogen fuel cell range-extender kits and were deployed in the first quarter of 2014. The above fuel cell, used in the trials, achieved approximately 320 km (200 mi) range—more than doubling the range of the pure BEV version of the Kangoo.
Harley-Davidson has for a number of years dispatched an engineer to SAE's annual Hybrid & Electric Vehicle Symposium for the purpose of gathering intel and making contacts in the EV field. One tangible result of Harley's SAE participation is Project LiveWire, the company’s first electric motorcycle concept. The Motor Company built 33 examples at a cost of more than $200,000 each, for the purpose of soliciting feedback from customers and media regarding the bike's performance, technologies, and styling. Harley-Davidson is also offering a simulated riding experience through Jumpstart for customers who do not ride, the company noted.
LiveWire engineers led by project chief engineer Jeff Richlen designed the machine's powertrain around a 3-phase ac induction motor that produces 74 hp (55 kW) at 8500 rpm and 52 lb·ft (71 N·m) of torque immediately off idle, according Richlen. The electric bike is Harley-Davidson’s lightest product, with a claimed curb weight of 463 lb (210 kg). In comparison, H-D's new Street 500 and Street 750 V-twins tip the scales at 489 lb (222 kg).
The bike’s battery pack contains lithium-ion battery cells. Because the EV is still in development and only for demonstration, Harley engineers are not focusing on pack size or capacity. Rather, they're focusing on the bike’s potential and gathering feedback, Richlen said. Harley held a media ride with a small fleet of LiveWire EVs in Manhattan on June 24, and writers who attended praised the bike's overall balance and suspension, while noting its limited range--60 mi (97 km) per charge.
Harley-Davidson also announced it is hiring several positions to support EV development and its electrical engineering resources, as well as working on Project LiveWire and similar endeavors.